Mediastinum Chest of Surgery
Mediastinum is an area found in the midline of the chest that is surrounded by the breastbone in front, the spine in back, and the lungs on each side. It contains the heart, thymus gland, portions of the esophagus and trachea, and other structures.
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder, characterized by weakness and rapid fatigue of any of the muscles under voluntary control. Around 10-15 percent of people with myasthenia gravis have a thymoma. Another 60%, however, will have other abnormalities of the gland including thymic hyperplasia (an enlarged gland).Thymectomy has been a mainstay in the surgical treatment of myasthenia gravis and helps over 85% of myasthenia gravis patients. We do extended thymectomy by minimally invasive techniques.
Thymoma is a tumor of thymus gland. Patients with thymoma may have other autoimmune disease (like myasthenia, pure red cell aplasia). Most of the patients don’t have any symptoms and the tumor is detected incidentally. Complete surgical removal helps long term cure to these patients.
We offer key-hole surgery to these patients with excellent outcomes.
Mediastinal masses are caused by a variety of cysts and tumors. Likely causes differ by patient age and by location of the mass (anterior, middle, or posterior mediastinum). Mediastinal tumors (both benign and malignant) that are left untreated can cause serious complications including invading the heart, pericardium (the lining around the heart), and great vessels (the aorta and vena cava). Tumors located in the posterior (back) mediastinum can cause compression of the spinal cord. Almost 40% of people who have mediastinal tumors experience no symptoms. Most of the growths are often discovered on a chest x-ray that is performed for another reason. When symptoms are present they are often a result of the compression of surrounding structures, such as the spinal cord, heart or the pericardium (the heart’s lining). Treatment depends on the cause. Most malignant tumors should be removed surgically, but some, such as lymphomas, are best treated with chemotherapy.